B-I--1-a. Straight Cuts
1. ROUGHING OFF CORNERS. (¾" GOUGE.) FIG. 14. The tool rest is set crosswise to the bed of the lathe and parallel to the face of the stock.
Place the gouge on the rest with the handle well down. Roll the gouge to the left until the grind which forms the cutting edge is perpendicular to the stock. The point of contact should be slightly below the center or nose of
The handle of the gouge is then swung well to the back of the lathe or to the operator's right. The gouge is then pushed forward into the stock and to the left, making a shearing cut. The cut should not be too heavy. The starting point for this cut should be a line which will indicate the largest diameter or circle that can be made from the block.--This cut should be repeated until the corners are removed from the block.
To complete the cutting of thick stock it will be found necessary to change the tool rest to an angle of 45° with the bed of the lathe.
When hardwood is being turned it is sometimes advisable to saw the block almost round with a compass saw or bandsaw, if one is to be had. Should this be done the preceding steps are omitted.
The tool rest is then placed parallel with the lathe bed and a roughing cut is taken with the gouge the entire thickness of the block.
The lathe should be run on second or third speed until the corners are removed, and then changed to first speed.
2. CALIPERING FOR DIAMETER. The true diameter is then calipered the same as in spindle work.
3. SMOOTHING CUT. A smoothing cut is taken with a skew chisel the same as in spindle work.
4. ROUGHING CUT ON THE FACE. (¾" GOUGE.) FIG. 15. The rest is now placed parallel to the bed of the lathe and slightly above the center of the spindle. Place the gouge on the rest on its edge with the grind toward the stock and parallel to the face to be surfaced. The nose of the gouge is the cutting point.
The handle is then raised and the cutting point is forced toward the center. A very thin shaving should be taken. If the gouge is allowed to roll back so the grind above the cutting point comes in contact with the wood it is sure to catch and gash the wood.
5. SMOOTHING THE FACE. (SMALL SKEW CHISEL.) FIG. 16. For all work up to 3" in diameter, the surface may be smoothed by using a small skew chisel in the same manner as in squaring the ends of Stock in cylinder work. (Step 6--Exercise A-I--1-a, Straight Cuts.)
For larger work, place the chisel flat on the rest with the toe next to the stock and the back edge of the chisel parallel to the face to be surfaced.
The point of the chisel is then forced toward the center of the stock, using the straight back of the tool as a guide against the finished surface. Only a very thin cut should be taken at a time.
Note:--While this operation may be termed a scraping cut, it will be found to be much easier on the tool than if the cutting edge were held flat against the work as in other scraping cuts.
The surface of the work should be tested for squareness by holding the edge of the chisel or a straight edge across the face.